(Cardiac cath or Heart cath)
Cardiac catheterization is an invasive imaging procedure used to diagnose and treat some cardiovascular conditions. It is a procedure to examine how well your heart is working. Other synonymous names for cardiac catheterization are cardiac cath, heart cath, and coronary angiogram. During the procedure, a thin flexible tube, called a catheter, is inserted into a large blood vessel that leads to your heart.
PURPOSE OF CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION
The first indication of cardiac cath is diagnostic tests. These tests are helpful to:
Also, part of cardiac cath procedures functions on treating heart disease. These treatments include:
RISKS OF CARDIAC CATH
Cardiac cath is usually safe. Fewer numbers of people, however, have problems. Some people develop bruises at the punctured site, where the catheter had been inserted. The contrast dye used to make the arteries show up on X-rays may cause some people to feel sick, get itching or develop hives. Other serious complications may include:
PREPARING FOR CARDIAC CATH
Cardiac catheterization is usually performed in the cardiac catheterization lab of a hospital. If you are an expectant mother or planning to be pregnant, tell your doctor before embarking on the procedure.
Don’t eat or drink anything at least 6 hours to the cardiac test, or as directed by your doctor. Ask your doctor if you should take your medications with a small amount of water. Diabetic patients should ask for instructions about diabetics’ medications and insulin.
Your doctor may recommend you stop blood-thinning medications, such as apixaban, warfarin, aspirin, dabigatron, and rivaroxaban. Take all your medications and supplements along with you, if possible take the original bottles with you to the test.
CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION PROCEDURES
Before The Procedure,
Your blood pressure and pulse will be checked. You will be asked to use the toilet to empty your bladder (to pee). You will remove your dentures (if any) and your jewelry, especially the necklace. You will be asked to wait in a preop room until it is time for the procedure.
During The Procedure,
A specially trained doctor performs the procedure with a team of nurses and technicians in the cardiac cath lab.
Uses Of A Catheter In Cardiac Cath
Routine Instructions During The Procedure
During the procedures, you will be awake. When the cardiac cath is on-going, you may receive instructions to do the following, throughout the procedure:
The instructions must be complied with if you must have a successful outcome. Your table may be titled at times, but you’ll have a safety strap on, to keep you firm on the table. Inform your health care team if you have any discomfort as the catheter is threading during the procedure.
After The Procedure,
You are moved to the recovery room for some hours to be free from the effect of the anesthesia. The sheath inserted in your groin will be removed soon after the procedure.
While in the recovery room:
Be sure to carefully follow all the instructions. Make sure you take your medications as directed by your doctor. Keep follow up appointments. If the punctured site starts bleeding, lie flat and press firmly on top of it for a few minutes. Recheck to see if the bleeding has stopped.
Call the doctor if:
Call 911 (emergency) if:
Most people can resume their normal activities a day after the procedure depending on their health improvement. It is recommended that you seek your doctor’s advice if your recovery is on the contrary.
The risk of major complications during diagnostic cardiac catheterization procedure is usually less than 1% and the risk and mortality of 0.05% for diagnostic procedures.
A report cited that during 14 months, 75 deaths occurring about 53,581 cardiac cath procedures. In conclusion, catheterization related mortality occurs mostly in patients with fat.
In recent studies done in 2019, higher death rates after heart catheterization are known, but the causes of mortality, have never been adjudicated. A cardiac cath is an invasive procedure that has evolved over the past four centuries.
Midazolam is commonly used for premedication and during the procedure. Cardiologist and nursing staff feel comfortable with the use of midazolam and fentanyl for mild to moderate sedation. Advantages of midazolam include short duration, minimal effect on hemodynamic and respiration, and reversibility with flumazenil.
Angioplasty and stenting can save your life and reduce heart muscle damage during a heart by restoring blood flow to the heart. Angiopathy and stenting may immediately relieve or at least reduce symptoms, such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue, making you feel better and able to do more each day.
In general, people who have angioplasty can walk around within 6 hours or less after the procedure. Complete recovery takes a week or less. Keep the area where the catheter was inserted dry for 24 – 48 hours if the catheter was inserted into your arm, recovery is often faster.
Cardiac catheterization is safe for most people. Complications are rare but can include, bleeding, blood clots, kidney damage, infections, and heart attack. Your doctor will monitor your condition and may recommend medicines to prevent blood clots.
We cannot visualize the organs or tissues inside of our body, but a biopsy helps in making a diagnosis by providing a piece of tissue for examination. A biopsy is often associated with cancer, but it can be used to diagnose other health conditions.