What is Umbilical Cord Blood Infusion?
Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB) Infusion also known as hematopoietic stem cells or cord blood is a procedure that is used to treat Ischemic stroke patients. Ischemic stroke which causes blood clot, stopping the flow of blood to the brain and killing the brain cells is one of the major causes of death in the world. It is inferred from the clinical trial that the primitive cells that’s found in the whole UCB can thus help in reducing swelling in the brain faster as well as rescue some of the other brain cells that are in the verge of death. It is a safe, readily-available, cryopreserved and banked stem cell-rich product which doesn’t require any invasive collection of autologous cells especially by bone marrow harvesting or via peripheral stem cell collection especially from fragile patients.
How is UCB infusion administered to Ischemic stroke patients?
Prior to performing allogeneic Umbilical Cord Blood infusion to Ischemic stroke patients, the affected patient will be advised to take a series of tests such as:
- Baseline neurological assessments
- Blood tests
Once done, UCB units will be then selected from a public cord blood bank. It is selected based on ABO/Rh blood type. Post selection, Umbilical cord blood to Ischemic stroke patients will then be administered intravenously as a single infusion post-stroke between 3 and 10 days. After which the subjects will be monitored for a period of 6 hours post-infusion. Follow-up will also be advised 24 hours later the infusion.
What are the risks involved in Cord Blood Infusion?
These are few of the risks involved in patients after allogeneic umbilical cord blood infusion for adults with Ischemic stroke patients. Infusion-related reactions take place in patient such as:
- Chills and Fever
- Nausea and Vomiting
- Cough and Wheezing
- Long-term risks include such as transmission of infection or Graft vs Host Disease
Criteria to undergo Umbilical Cord Blood infusion:
These are a few inclusion criteria that is monitored in patients with Ischemic stroke:
- Age criteria should be 18 to 80 years old
- The affected patient must have a platelet count greater than 100,000/uL and hemoglobin level greater than 8gm/dl
- Has an ABO/Rh that is matched with UCB
Inferences from Umbilical Cord Blood Infusion procedure in Ischemic Stroke patients
Patients with Ischemic stroke showed a significant improvement in basic day-to-day activities all just at 3 months relative to cord blood infusion. These are few inferences from the clinical trial procedure of UCB infusion in Ischemic stroke patients:
- Half of Ischemic stroke patients improved to mRS of 2 (i.e. patients with slight disability who were unable to carry out all previous activities were now able to look after themselves without assistance).
- 20% of stroke patients improved to mRS of 3 (i.e. patients with moderate disability who were requiring some help were able to walk without assistance).