Orthopedics, Anavara Limited

© 2019 by Anavara digital team

Orthopedic Diseases

What are orthopedic disorders?

Any condition or disease related to the bodies musculoskeletal system, degenerative diseases, trauma, sports injuries, and congenital defects (related to bone or muscles) is called an orthopedic disorder. A few of them are listed below however there are much more.

What does an orthopedic Surgeon do?

Orthopedic surgeons are specialized in the diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the bones, joints, ligaments, tendons and muscles.

Most Orthopedic surgeons are generalist, while with the advancement of technology we get orthopedic specialists like surgeons, trauma care, sports medicine, rehabilitation etc.

Arthritis

There are more than 100 different types of arthritis. Many symptoms are similar among the different conditions affecting the joints. Arthritis may be generally categorized into the following groups: degenerative arthritis, inflammatory arthritis, metabolic arthritis, and infectious arthritis. Osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative arthritis) is the most common type.

 

 

Bursitis

Bursitis is a painful condition that affects the small, fluid-filled sacs — called bursae, that cushion the bones, tendons and muscles near your joints. Bursitis occurs when bursae become inflamed.

The most common locations for bursitis are in the shoulder, elbow and hip. But bursitis can also occure in knee, heel and the base of your big toe. Bursitis often occurs near joints that perform frequent repetitive motion.

Carpel Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

The carpal tunnel is an opening in the wrist which is surrounded by bones on 3 sides and by the transverse carpal ligament which forms the roof. It contains many tendons and the median nerve. The median nerve provides sensation of the thumb, index finger, long finger, and half of the ring finger. It also helps us move the thumb by providing motor power to the thenar muscles. Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition where a nerve called the median nerve gets compressed within the carpal tunnel at the wrist.

 

 

Congenital orthopedic defects.

A defect present right from the birth is also known as a congenital disorder, regardless of its cause.  Birth defects may result from genetic or chromosomal disorders, exposure to certain medications or chemicals, or certain infections during pregnancy or by alcohol or drug consumption during pregnancy. Some of the common ones are club foot, Developmental Dyspelasia of the Hip, muscular dystrophy, Bilateral Tibia etc

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

Cubital tunnel syndrome happens when the ulnar nerve, which passes through the cubital tunnel (a tunnel of muscle, ligament, and bone) on the inside of the elbow, is injured and becomes inflamed, swollen, and irritated.

Cubital tunnel syndrome causes pain that feels a lot like the pain you feel when you hit the "funny bone" in your elbow. The "funny bone" in the elbow is actually the ulnar nerve, a nerve that crosses the elbow. The ulnar nerve starts in the side of your neck and ends in your fingers.

Elbow Pain

Elbow pain is often caused by overuse of the elbow with sports activities or related to job which require repetitive hand, wrist or arm movements. Elbow pain may occasionally be due to arthritis, but in general, your elbow joint is much less prone to wear-and-tear damage than are many other joints.

Medial Epicondylitis (Golfer's or Baseball Elbow)

Golfer's elbow is a condition that causes pain where the tendons of your forearm muscles attach to the bony bump on the inside of your elbow. The pain might spread into your forearm and wrist.

Golfer's elbow is similar to tennis elbow, which occurs on the outside of the elbow. It's not limited to golfers. Tennis players and others who repeatedly use their wrists or clench their fingers also can develop golfer's elbow.

Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by fatigue, sleep, memory and mood issues. Researchers believe that fibromyalgia amplifies painful sensations by affecting the way your brain processes pain signals.

Women are more likely to develop fibromyalgia than are men. Many people who have fibromyalgia also have tension headaches, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety and depression.

Foot Pain and Problems

Injury, overuse or conditions causing inflammation involving any of the bones, ligaments or tendons in the foot can cause foot pain. Arthritis is a common cause of foot pain. Injury to the nerves of the feet may result in intense burning pain, numbness or tingling (peripheral neuropathy).

Fractures

A fracture is a crack or complete breakage of the bone. When a fracture occurs, it is classified as either open (compound) where the bone exits and is visible through the skin as it has punctured the skin or closed (simple) where the skin is intact.

Hip pain and replacement

Hip pain is a common complaint that can be caused by a wide variety of problems. The precise location of your hip pain can provide valuable clues about the underlying cause.

Problems within the hip joint itself tend to result in pain on the inside of your hip or your groin. Hip pain on the outside of your hip, upper thigh or outer buttock is usually caused by problems with muscles, ligaments, tendons and other soft tissues that surround your hip joint.

Hip pain can sometimes be caused by diseases and conditions in other areas of your body, such as your lower back. This type of pain is called referred pain.

Hip pain and stiffness can make walking and other everyday activities a challenge. Hip replacement surgery is a good option when Other treatments like medication, physiotherapy, weight loss haven't worked.

Knee Pain and replacement

Knee pain is a common complaint that affects people of all ages. Knee pain may be the result of an injury, such as a ruptured ligament or torn cartilage. Medical conditions — including arthritis, gout and infections — also can cause knee pain.

Many types of minor knee pain respond well to self-care measures. Physical therapy and knee braces also can help relieve knee pain. In some cases, however, your knee may require surgical repair.

Knee replacement surgery — also known as knee arthroplasty can help relieve pain and restore function in severely diseased knee joints. The procedure involves cutting away damaged bone and cartilage from your thighbone, shinbone and kneecap and replacing it with an artificial joint (prosthesis) made of metal alloys, high-grade plastics and polymers.

In determining whether a knee replacement is right , an orthopedic surgeon assesses of the  knee's range of motion, stability and strength. X-rays help determine the extent of damage. The doctor can choose from a variety of knee replacement prostheses and surgical techniques, considering the age, weight, activity level, knee size and shape, and overall health.

Kyphosis

Kyphosis is an exaggerated, forward rounding of the back. It can occur at any age but is most common in older women.

Age-related kyphosis is often due to weakness in the spinal bones that causes them to compress or crack. Other types of kyphosis can appear in infants or teens due to malformation of the spine or wedging of the spinal bones over time.

Mild kyphosis causes few problems. Severe kyphosis can cause pain and be disfiguring. Treatment for kyphosis depends on your age, and the cause and effects of the curvature.

Neck Pain

Your neck is made up of vertebrae that extend from the skull to the upper torso. Cervical discs absorb shock between the bones. The bones, ligaments, and muscles of the neck support the head and allow for motion. Any abnormalities, inflammation, or injury can cause neck pain or stiffness.

Many people experience neck pain or stiffness occasionally. In many cases, it’s due to poor posture or overuse. Sometimes, neck pain is caused by injury from a fall, contact sports, or whiplash.Most of the time, neck pain isn’t a serious condition and can be relieved within a few days.But in some cases, neck pain can indicate serious injury or illness and require a doctor’s care.

If neck pain continues for more than a week, is severe, or is accompanied by other symptoms, medical attention should be sought immediately.

Osteoporosis

Bone is living tissue that is constantly being broken down and replaced. Osteoporosis occurs when the creation of new bone doesn't keep up with the loss of old bone.

Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle — so brittle that a fall or even mild stresses such as bending over or coughing can cause a fracture. Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in the hip, wrist or spine.

Osteoporosis affects men and women of all races. But white and Asian women — especially older women who are past menopause — are at highest risk. Medications, healthy diet and weight-bearing exercise can help prevent bone loss or strengthen already weak bones.

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of your bones wears down over time.

Although osteoarthritis can damage any joint, the disorder most commonly affects joints in your hands, knees, hips and spine.

Osteoarthritis symptoms can usually be managed, although the damage to joints can't be reversed. Staying active, maintaining a healthy weight and some treatments might slow progression of the disease and help improve pain and joint function.

Paget's Disease of the Bone

Paget's disease of bone interferes with your body's normal recycling process, in which new bone tissue gradually replaces old bone tissue. Over time, the disease can cause affected bones to become fragile and misshapen. Paget's disease of bone most commonly occurs in the pelvis, skull, spine and legs.

The risk of Paget's disease of bone increases with age. Your risk also increases if any family members have the disorder. Complications of Paget's disease of bone can include broken bones, hearing loss and pinched nerves in your spine.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a long-term, progressive, and disabling autoimmune disease. It causes inflammation, swelling, and pain in and around the joints and other body organs.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) usually affects the hands and feet first, but it can occur in any joint. It usually involves the same joints on both sides of the body.

Common symptoms include stiff joints, especially upon getting up in the mornings or after sitting down for a while. Some people often experience fatigue and a general feeling of being unwell.

Scoliosis

Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine which is usually S or C shaped, that occurs most often during the growth spurt just before puberty. While scoliosis can be caused by conditions such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy, the cause of most scoliosis is unknown.

Shoulder Pain and Problems

Shoulder injuries can occur on the job which involves physical work including lifting, pushing, or by by performing manual labor, playing sports, or by repetitive movement. Certain diseases can bring about pain that travels to the shoulder. These include diseases of the cervical spine (neck), as well as liver, heart, or gallbladder disease.

Chances of shoulder pain increases as we age, especially after age 60. This is because the soft tissues surrounding the shoulder tend to degenerate with age.

The shoulder joint is the most mobile joint in the body. It moves the shoulder forward and backward. It also allows the arm to move in a circular motion and to move up and away from the body.

Shoulders get their range of motion from the rotator cuff.

The rotator cuff is made up of four tendons. Tendons are the tissues that connect muscles to bone. It may be painful or difficult to lift your arm over your head if the tendons or bones around the rotator cuff are damaged or swollen.

Soft-Tissue Injuries

A soft tissue injury is the damage of tissues like muscles, ligaments or tendons which are present throughout the body – whose whole purpose is to assist in motion or holding of structures together. The injuries can range from minor sprain upto and including loss of function of specific parts of the body.

Sports Injuries

Injuries that occur while participating in any type of sports are normally called sports injuries. A few of them are listed below for reference, but in reality, there are much more sports related injuries.

  • Sprains. Overstretching or tearing the ligaments results in a sprain. Ligaments are pieces of tissue that connect two bones to one another in a joint.

  • Strains. Overstretching or tearing muscles or tendons results in a sprain. Tendons are thick, fibrous cords of tissue that connect bone to muscle. Strains are commonly mistaken for sprains. Here’s how tell them apart.

  • Knee injuries. Any injury that interferes with how the knee joint moves could be a sports injury. It could range from an overstretch to a tear in the muscles or tissues in the knee.

  • Swollen muscles. Swelling is a natural reaction to an injury. Swollen muscles may also be painful and weak.

  • Achilles tendon rupture. The Achilles tendon is a thin, powerful tendon at the back of your ankle. During sports, this tendon can break or rupture. When it does, you may experience sudden, severe pain and difficulty walking.

  • Fractures. Bone fractures are also known as broken bones.

  • Dislocations. Sports injuries may dislocate a bone in your body. When that happens, a bone is forced out of its socket. This can be painful and lead to swelling and weakness.

  • Rotator cuff injury. Four pieces of muscle work together to form the rotator cuff. The rotator cuff keeps your shoulder moving in all directions. A tear in any of these muscles can weaken the rotator cuff.

Torn Meniscus

Meniscus tears are common in contact sports like football as well as noncontact sports requiring jumping and cutting such as volleyball and soccer. They can happen when a person changes direction suddenly while running, and often occur at the same time as other knee injuries, like an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Meniscus tears are a special risk for older athletes since the meniscus weakens with age. More than 40% of people 65 or older have them.

Trauma care

A trauma occurs when a person is injured from major traumatic injuries such as fallsmotor vehicle collisions, or gunshot wounds or even fires or collisions. A trauma can be treated by a trauma center, that  may also refer to an emergency department (also known as a "casualty department" or "accident and emergency") without the presence of specialized services to care for victims of major trauma.

 

All information provided is for information only. We strongly advise the readers to consult a Doctor before embarking on a solution to their medical issues.

We acknowledge the information provided above have been obtained from the following websites:

www.Mayoclinic.org

www.urmc.rochester.edu

www.hopkinsmedicine.org

www.healthlibrary.brighamandwomens.org

https://www.healthline.com/health/sports-injuries

www.healthline.com