Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant
Who needs Bone Marrow Transplant?
· Those who suffer from Sickle cell anemia.
· A few types of cancer like Leukemia, Multiple Myeloma or Hodgins
· Non Hodgins Lymphoma
· aplastic anemia, which is a disorder in which the marrow stops
making new blood cells
· Due to chemotherapy the bone marrow is damaged.
· congenital neutropenia, which is a genetic disorder that causes
· thalassemia, which is another genetic blood disorder where the body
makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin which is in RBC.
· Rare diseases like Krabbe disease, Hurler Syndrome,
Adrenoleukodystrophy, and metachromatic Leukodystrophy
More about Treatment
What is Bone Marrow Transplant? BMT
To understand BMT, we have to first know what is bone marrow. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside few bones of the body, such as hip and thigh bones. This spongy tissue creates the parts of the blood- namely Red Blood Corpuscles (RBC), White Blood Corpuscles (RBC) and Blood Platelets. When these get diseased thereby unable to produce healthy blood cells, then the only way to cure it is by infusing it with healthy blood stem cells. The marrow transplant is also called Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) or called stem transplant or stem cell transplant
What are the types of Bone Marrow Transplant?
There are 2 types of BMT – One using your own stem cells (autologous) or using stem cell from a donor (Allogenic). Both are fairly successful but the former is usually preferred to the later.
What is the process of autologous Bone Marrow Transplant?
In autologous transplantation, doctors usually collect, or harvest, stem cells that circulate in the bloodstream. These cells are called peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs).
PBSC harvesting is similar to giving blood. Over the course of one to five days, blood is taken out of a vein and put through the machine, which collects the stem cells. The other parts of the blood are then returned to your body. Most people don’t have side effects from blood collection and can go back to their regular activities. The stem cells are cryopreserved (frozen) until they are given back to you.
Preparing for a Transplant
Once your stem cells have been collected and you know the date of the transplant, you will go through a process called a preparative regimen. It is also sometimes called conditioning or cytotoxic treatment. In this step, doctors use chemotherapy with or without radiation to kill cancerous cells. Our doctors customize your treatment based on your disease and which therapy it is most likely to respond to.
The preparative regimen may be given over several days. People usually have the transplant a day or two after their last chemotherapy or radiation dose.
Transplantation and Recovery
Doctors usually add the collected stem cells into the patient’s bloodstream in the same way they perform a blood transfusion. Over the following days and weeks, the transplanted stem cells move to the marrow space in the bones. There, they gradually begin to produce new blood cells.
Between two and three weeks after the transplant, doctors usually start to find newly formed blood cells in the patient’s bloodstream. With time, a successful transplant graft will make red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
In the days right after a transplant, you need a lot of medical support. You may get transfusions of irradiated blood products, such as platelets and red blood cells. You may also get antibiotics to prevent and treat bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. These infections are most likely to happen in the first three months after transplantation. People who have had stem cell transplants may also have complications because of the chemotherapy and radiation given before the transplant. Such complications may require more treatments. Most people stay in the hospital for two to three weeks after a transplant. During this time, you will need special protection from infections. Everyone who comes into the room has to wear protective gloves and masks and to wash their hands with antiseptic soap. Sometimes people entering the room need to cover their clothing with clean, disposable gowns. Fresh fruit, plants, and cut flowers are not allowed, because they can carry disease-causing mold and bacteria.