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Axonotmesis

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Axonotmesis

Axonotmesis

Nerve crush injuries are categorised in 3 types : Axonotmesis Neuropraxia  Neurotmesis What Is Axonotmesis? Axonotmesis is a term used for peripheral nerve injury when there is damage specifically to the axon and the myelin sheath of the nerve fibre. During this, connective tissue sheath-like endoneurium, perineurium, and epineurium remain unbroken. Like all disorders of […]

Symptoms

Axonotmesis Symptoms Are :

  1. Reflexes reduce
  2. Sensory and motor nerves become immobile and numb
  3. Acute trauma
  4. Radicular nerve injury
  5. Brachial plexus injury
  6. The initial symptom of axonopathy is impaired sensation, which occurs gradually. 
  7. Creepy & tingling feeling in the foot and hand
  8. Numbness of the fingers. 
  9. A person may not feel pain and temperature stimuli.
  10. Autonomic dysfunction
  11. There is no pronation and supination
  12. Strength in the calf muscles decreases
  13. Impaired joint movement

Causes

What causes axonotmesis?

In general, the reasons for the development of the condition can be:

Chemicals poisoning:- Long term exposure to poisonous substances like methyl alcohol, carbon monoxide, and arsenic negatively affects neuronal metabolism. As a result, it causes a deficiency of essential nutrients, and the tissue undergoes degeneration.

Endocrine Disorders:- Due to hormonal imbalance, metabolic processes in the body slows down, affecting the transmission of a nerve impulse along an axon.

Vitamin deficiency:- The lack of essential nutrients leads to the slowly progressive destruction of the peripheral axonal process of neurons.

Alcohol use disorder:-  Axonotmesis often develops in people with alcoholism for several years.

Other common causes:- 

  1. An allergic reaction of the body
  2. Frequent injuries to joints and ligaments
  3. A sudden increase in physical activity
  4. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders
  5. Inflammation due to autoimmune disorders
  6. Deficiency or excess of calcium
  7. Wearing uncomfortable shoes, high heels
  8. Old-age complications

It is caused due to the separation of nerve and muscle atrophy.

Diagnosis 

Diagnosis of axonotmesis consists of the clinical and neurological examination, which helps to determine the damaged area of ​​the nervous system and degree (nature) of the lesion. The most common technique used is electroneuromyography (ENMG ), which helps to determine the functional state of the peripheral nervous system and muscles. ENMG provides reliable information about the degree of damage and the course of the degenerative-regenerative process.

Additionally, a neurologist collects medical history and personal information to understand the patient's lifestyle and the type of professional activity.

Axonotmesis Treatment

Once diagnosed, treatment for axonotmesis should begin as early as possible. At the time of active treatment, it is necessary to limit physical activity as much as possible. Neurologists give priority to surgery. Before and after surgery, for rehabilitation, constant conservative therapy is necessary.

Conservative therapy may include: 

  1. Physiotherapy: To heal injuries, prevent the formation of adhesions and relieve an unpleasant symptom.
  2. Exercise therapy: To strengthen the musculoskeletal system. 
  3. Massage: To accelerates tissue regeneration processes 

The treatment program is developed strictly on an individual basis.

Prevention

  • Balanced diet
  • Maintaining normal glucose levels
  • Providing quality rest
  • Exercise with proper technique and precautions
  • Mandatory warming up of muscles before any intense exercises
  • Strengthening the muscle corset
  • Developing a flexible body
  • Timely treatment of diseases of the musculoskeletal system

 

Subject to specific recommendations, you can reduce the risk of developing axonotmesis, especially when entering a risk group. Also, prevention measures slow down the course of an existing disease, accelerate the regeneration of damaged tissues, and avoids the need for surgical intervention.

More about Treatment

Nerve crush injuries are categorised in 3 types :

  1. Axonotmesis
  2. Neuropraxia 
  3. Neurotmesis

What Is Axonotmesis?

Axonotmesis is a term used for peripheral nerve injury when there is damage specifically to the axon and the myelin sheath of the nerve fibre. During this, connective tissue sheath-like endoneurium, perineurium, and epineurium remain unbroken. Like all disorders of the peripheral nervous system, the condition causes impaired movement, sensitivity, and autonomic symptoms. With appropriate treatment, the degeneration can be stopped, thereby improving the prognosis for life. Axonotmesis is more dangerous than neuropraxia as Wallerian degeneration occurs,  usually within 1-2 days after the nerve crush injury in this phase. Perineurium and endoneurium usually get harmed while epineurium stays stable. It is more often seen in fractured bones, stretched and compressed injuries. Axonotmesis is generally more visible in males than females in a ratio of 70:30 

Surprisingly, young males get triggered by axonotmesis more than elderly persons. Recovery is totally possible but it takes weeks and even months also it depends on the severity of the axonal sprout, on the extent of the lesions. Initially, symptoms of axonotmesis are similar to neurotmesis so people and doctors as well get confused at this point. Fibrillation starts appearing in 10-15 days. 



FAQ

1. What’s Difference Between Neuropraxia And Axonotmesis (Table Is Recommended)

NEUROPRAXIA AXONOTMESIS
When injury starts because of ischemia but doesn’t harm axons at all. Obstruction of nerve impulses can be seen here. But comparatively this is the mildest nerve crush injury. Injury in myelin sheath and axon is clearly seen and is the severe nerve injury.
It doesn’t harm the epineurium, endoneurium and perineurium. It mostly harms perineurium and occasionally harms endoneurium.
Caused by ischemia Caused by interruption in connective tissue.
Recovery is super fast and can happen in 2-4 days maximum Recovery is very slow and incalculable.
It is a carbon copy of Sunderland 1st degree. It is a carbon copy of Sunderland 2nd, 3rd and 4th.

2. What’s The Difference Between Neurotmesis And Axonotmesis (Table Is Recommended)

NEUROTMESIS AXONOTMESIS
It is considered to be extremely dangerous and is more critical than axonotmesis and neuropraxia. It damages endoneurium and totally separates nerves It is a type of acute nerve crush injury, axon nestled in myelin sheath gets damaged and myelin sheath gets degenerated.
Its recovery is very poor and takes more than 6 months or 1 year to recover sometimes. Recovery period is not too poor and not too good and can get cured probably in 2 weeks maximum time.
It destroys endoneurium level always. Typically harms perineurium.
It is a carbon copy of Sunderland 1st degree. It is a carbon copy of Sunderland 2nd, 3rd and 4th.

Top Doctors For Axonotmesis Treatment

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Dr. K. R. Suresh Bapu Neurology | Gender: Male | Experience: 30 years | Hospital: SIMS Hospital, Chennai
Dr. Krishna K. Choudhary Neurology | Gender: Male | Experience: 23 years | Hospital: Primus Super Speciality Hospital, Delhi
Dr. Deshpande V. Rajakumar Neurology | Gender: Male | Experience: 30 years | Hospital: Fortis Hospital, Bengaluru
Dr. C. M. Malhotra Neurology | Gender: Male | Experience: 25 years | Hospital: Apollo Indraprastha
Dr. Bhanu Pant Neurology | Gender: Male | Experience: 30 years | Hospital: Apollo Indraprastha
Prof. Dr. Aytaç Yiğit Neurology | Gender: Male | Experience: 25 years | Hospital: Hisar Intercontinental
Dr. Gülümser Kiziltaş Tokmak Neurology | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Hisar Intercontinental
Dr. Tinku Jose Kurisinkal Neurology | Gender: Male | Experience: 14 years | Hospital: RAK Hospital
Dr. Youssry Salah Shafiq Neurology | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Saudi German Hospital
Dr. Khaldoun Osman Neurology | Gender: Male | Experience: 9 years | Hospital: Saudi German Hospital
Dr. Shadi Sharifi Neurology | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Saudi German Hospital
Dr. Mohamed Fouad Ibrahim Neurology | Gender: Male | Experience: 20 years | Hospital: Saudi German Hospital
Dr. Suhail Abdulla Mohammad Alruknl Neurology | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Saudi German Hospital
Dr. Ahmed M. Moussa Neurology | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Saudi German Hospital
Dr. Cengiz Çokluk Neurology | Gender: Male | Experience: 29 years | Hospital: Medicana International Hospital, Istanbul
Dr. M. Hale Alpsan Gökmen Neurology | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Anadolu Hospital
Dr. Abhaya Kumar Neurology | Gender: Male | Experience: 15 years | Hospital: Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital
Dr. Annu Aggarwal Neurology | Gender: Female | Experience: 25 years | Hospital: Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital

Top Hospitals For Axonotmesis Treatment

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