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Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

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Symptoms

Symptoms of breast cancer are usually as follows:
  • Changes to the skin over the breast, such as dimpling
  • A newly inverted nipple
  • A breast lump or thickening that feels different from the surrounding tissue
  • Change in the size, shape or appearance of a breast
  • Peeling, scaling, crusting or flaking of the pigmented area of skin surrounding the nipple (areola) or breast skin
  • Redness or pitting of the skin over your breast, like the skin of an orange
  • Breast cancer starts in the cells of the breast. A cancerous (malignant) tumour is a group of cancer cells that can grow into and destroy nearby tissue. It can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.
  • Causes

    Though the actual cause of breast cancer has not been identified as to why some get cancer while other females do not get it, the general reasons are attributed to the following:Genetics and heredity. It is believed that 5- 10 % is inherited.Hormonal and lifestyle / environmental factorsBreast cancer most often starts with the milk producing ducts (invasive ductal carcinoma). Breast cancer may also begin in the glandular tissued called lobules (invasive lobular carcinoma)

    More about Treatment

    Types of Breast Cancer: Nearly all breast cancers are adenocarcinomas. These tumors start in gland cells. The most common adenocarcinomas of the breast are:
    • Ductal carcinoma (including ductal carcinoma in site or DCIS),
    • Lobular carcinoma,
    • Paget disease of the nipple and
    • Triple negative breast cancer
    • Some rare types of breast cancer are also prevalent such as a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma called diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Soft tissue sarcoma, Melanoma, Metaplastic tumours, Adenoid cystic carcinoma, Phylloides tumour.

    Doctors usually classify these tumours as non-invasive or invasive. Non-invasive means that the cancer cells have not spread beyond the duct or gland where they started. Invasive means that the cancer cells have started to spread into the surrounding tissue.


    Risk factors for breast cancer:
    • Personal history of breast cancer
    • Women who had breast cancer in the past have a higher risk of developing breast cancer again.
    • Family history of breast and other cancers
    A family history of breast cancer means that one or more close blood relatives have or had breast cancer. Some families have more cases of breast cancer than would be expected by chance. Sometimes it is not clear whether the family’s pattern of cancer is due to chance, shared lifestyle factors, genes passed from parents to children or a combination of these factors.
    • BRCA gene mutations
    Genetic mutations are changes to a gene. Some gene changes can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Inherited gene mutations are passed on from a parent to a child. Only a small number of breast cancers (about 5%–10%) are caused by an inherited gene mutation.
    • Dense breasts
    Dense breasts have more connective tissue, glands and milk ducts than fatty tissue. Breast density is an inherited trait. Women with dense breast tissue have a higher risk of developing breast cancer than women with little or no dense breast tissue.
    • Breast density can only be seen on a mammogram.
    • Reproductive history
    Estrogen is the main hormone associated with breast cancer. Estrogen affects the growth of breast cells. Experts believe that it plays an important role in the growth of breast cancer cells as well. The type of exposure and how long cells are exposed to estrogen affects the chances that breast cancer will develop.
    • Early menarche
    The start of menstruation is called menarche. Early menarche is when menstruation starts at an early age (11 or younger). Starting your period early means that your cells are exposed to estrogen and other hormones for a greater amount of time. This increases the risk of breast cancer.
    • Late menopause
    Menopause occurs as the ovaries stop making hormones and the level of hormones (mainly estrogen and progesterone) in the body drops. This causes a woman to stop menstruating. If you enter menopause at a later age (after age 55), it means that your cells are exposed to estrogen and other hormones for a greater amount of time. This increases the risk for breast cancer. Early menopause is linked with a lower risk of breast cancer.
    • Late pregnancy or no pregnancies
    Pregnancy interrupts the exposure of breast cells to circulating estrogen. It also lowers the total number of menstrual cycles a woman has in her lifetime.. Women who have their first full-term pregnancy after the age of 30 have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer than women who have at least one full-term pregnancy at an earlier age. Becoming pregnant at an early age (such as before age 20) reduces breast cancer risk. The more children a woman has, the greater the protection against breast cancer. Not becoming pregnant at all (called nulliparity) increases the risk for breast cancer.
    • Exposure to ionizing radiation
    Women who have received radiation therapy to the chest, neck and armpit area (called the mantle radiation field) have a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
    Many women fear that regular mammography will increase their risk for breast cancer. Modern mammography equipment uses very low doses of radiation compared to the dose used for treating cancer. The benefits of mammography outweigh the risks of exposure to radiation.
    • Hormone replacement therapy
    Research shows that taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for a long time increases the risk of breast cancer. This is especially true for HRT that uses estrogen plus progestin (called combined HRT).
    • Oral contraceptives
    Oral contraceptives that contain both estrogen and progesterone can slightly increase the risk for breast cancer, especially among women who have used oral contraceptives for 10 or more years. The higher risk disappears after the woman stops taking oral contraceptives.
    • Atypical hyperplasia
    Atypical hyperplasia is a non-cancerous (benign) condition where there is a greater number of abnormal (atypical) cells in the breast tissue. Atypical hyperplasia increases a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer.
    • Alcohol
    Drinking alcohol increases a woman’s risk for breast cancer. Even low levels of alcohol consumption (just over 1 drink per day) can increase a woman’s risk. The risk increases with the amount of alcohol consumed.
    • Being obese
    Obesity increases the risk for breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Studies show that women who have never taken hormone replacement therapy and who have a body mass index (BMI) of 31.1 or higher have a 2.5 times greater risk of developing breast cancer than those with a BMI of 22.6 or lower.
    • Physical inactivity
    Physical inactivity increases the risk of breast cancer in both premenopausal and post-menopausal women. A number of studies are currently looking into the role of exercise in breast cancer.
    • High socio-economic status
    Breast cancer risk is slightly higher for women with higher incomes. This may be because of lifestyle factors that are linked to breast cancer, such as having children later in life or having fewer children.
    • Tall adult height
    Research shows that tall women have a slightly higher risk of developing breast cancer after menopause. It is thought that energy intake and diet early in life, which affect adult height, are the factors that increase the risk, rather than just being tall.


    Diagnosis:
    Many diagnostic tests either as a standalone or in combination are done to diagnose breast cancer. The following are normally used to diagnose:
    • Diagnostic Mammography
    • Ultrasound.
    • Biopsy - this is a definite way to diagnose breast cancer. There are many methods of biopsy and doctors use one method over other depending on the situation.
    • Hormone receptor status testing.
    • Blood chemistry and Complete Blood Count (CBC)
    • Tumor market tests
    • MRI
    • Scintimammography

    Treatment:
    Treatment for breast cancer depends on the stage of progress of the disease. Usually earlier the stage of detection, greater is the chance for success in treatment. Normally the following are the methods used to treat Breast Cancer

    • Radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Surgery
    • Hormonal therapy
    • Targeted therapy.

    Follow up after treatment is an important aspect of cancer care. This is very important within the first 5 year of treatment to prevent relapse of cancer.

    Reconstruction and prosthesis
    After surgery to remove the cancerous breast it may be difficult to cope with the change in appearance. Breast reconstruction and breast prostheses are various options intended to help you. Breast reconstruction recreates all or part of breast that has been removed by the surgery. It is usually done by a plastic surgeon who is specialised in this field. This is done with your own tissues, or implants or a combination of both.
    Breast prosthesis is an artificial breast form which is worn inside the bra to recreate the natural shape of the breast.
    Choosing to stay flat is an option which many women are deciding these days. However, it is upto you decide on what to do.

    Supportive care
    Supportive care is an important part of breast cancer cure. There are many programs and services available to help meet the needs and improve the quality of life of people living with cancer and their loved ones, especially after treatment has ended.
    Recovering from breast cancer and adjusting to life after treatment is different for each woman, depending on the stage of the cancer and the treatments you had. You may need to take hormonal therapy or biological therapy after other treatments are finished. The end of cancer treatment may bring mixed emotions. Even though treatment has ended, there may be other issues to deal with, such as coping with long-term side effects.

    FAQ

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    Top Doctors For Breast Cancer Treatment

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    Dr. K. Satish Srinivas Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 15 years | Hospital: Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre (SRMC)
    Dr. Asmita Jain Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 13 years | Hospital: Primus Super Speciality Hospital, Delhi
    Dr. Abhay Kumar Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Narayana Hospital
    Dr. Amit Rauthan Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 17 years | Hospital: Manipal Hospitals, Bengaluru
    Dr. Archana Shetty Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 21 years | Hospital: Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital
    Dr. Feroz Pasha Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 18 years | Hospital: Apollo Indraprastha
    Dr. G. K. Jadhav Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 25 years | Hospital: Apollo Indraprastha
    Dr. Rohit Nayyar Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Max Super Speciality Hospital, Saket
    Dr. Sharan Choudhri Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 25 years | Hospital: Max Super Speciality Hospital, Saket
    Dr. Nidha Iqbal Shapoo Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 5 years | Hospital: Thumbay Hospital, Dubai
    Dr. Rajeev Kaushal Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 27 years | Hospital: Saudi German Hospital
    Dr. Balaji Balasubramaniam Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 15 years | Hospital: NMC Royal AbuDhabi
    Dr. Sai Babu Jonnada Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 16 years | Hospital: NMC Royal AbuDhabi
    Dr. Mohanad Diab Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 15 years | Hospital: NMC Royal AbuDhabi
    Dr. Sadir Alrawi Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 28 years | Hospital: NMC Royal AbuDhabi
    Dr. Moujahed (Ed) Ashtar Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 29 years | Hospital: NMC Royal AbuDhabi
    Dr. Khaled Kouteich Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 28 years | Hospital: Al Zahra Dubai
    Dr. Sujay Susikar Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Fortis Malar Hospital, Chennai
    Dr. Bellarmine Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 37 years | Hospital: Fortis Malar Hospital, Chennai
    Dr. S Annalakshmi Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
    Dr. Radheshyam Naik Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 25 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
    Dr. Premita Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
    Dr. Prabhu Nesargikar Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
    Dr. Mahesh Bandemegal Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
    Dr. Lohith Reddy Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
    Dr. Krithika Murugan Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
    Dr. Jagannath Dixit Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 16 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
    Dr. Belliappa Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
    Dr. Akshay Kudpaje Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
    Dr. Shabeena Rana Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 17 years | Hospital: Al Zahra Dubai
    Dr. Anil Kumar Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 9 years | Hospital: Fortis Hospital, Bengaluru
    Dr. Reetesh Ranjan Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: BLK Hospitals
    Dr. S. Jayalakshmi Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Artemis Hospital, Delhi
    Dr. Priya Tiwari Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Artemis Hospital, Delhi
    Prof. Hale Başak Çağlar Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Anadolu Hospital
    Prof. Dr. Bülent Karagöz Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Anadolu Hospital
    Prof. N. Yalçın İlker Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Anadolu Hospital
    Dr. Mehmet Doğu Canoğlu Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Anadolu Hospital
    Dr. Harsh Dua Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 25 years | Hospital: Apollo Indraprastha
    Dr. Manish Singhal Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 16 years | Hospital: Apollo Indraprastha
    Dr. Abuchi Okaro Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 20 years | Hospital: Euracare Multi-Specialist Hospital
    Dr. Syed Azim Razvi Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Apollo Indraprastha
    Dr. S. Hukku Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 25 years | Hospital: BLK Hospitals
    Dr. Surender Kumar Dabas Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 7 years | Hospital: BLK Hospitals
    Dr. Amit Agarwal Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: BLK Hospitals

    Top Hospitals For Breast Cancer Treatment

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    Cytecare Hospitals At Cytecare, they understand and stress on the right way of fighting cancer. This gives rise to a mu
    Columbia Asia Hospital, Bengaluru Columbia Asia is an international healthcare group operating a chain of modern hospitals across Indi
    Gleaneagles Global Hospital, Mumbai Gleneagles Global Hospital, Mumbai offers end-to-end clinical, surgical and diagnostic services. The
    Kerala Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Trivandrum KIMS HEALTHCARE GROUP is one of Asia’s leading multi-specialty hospital networks focussed on provi
    Max Super Speciality Hospital, Saket Max Smart Super Speciality Hospital, Saket (a unit of Gujarmal Modi Hospital & Research Centre for M
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