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Cancer

Cancer

Normally, human cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. However in Cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues.These extra cells can divide without stopping and […]

Symptoms

Cancer can cause many symptoms, but these symptoms are most often caused by illness, injury, benign tumors, or other problems. If you have symptoms that do not get better after a few weeks, see your doctor so that problems can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible. Often, cancer does not cause pain, so do not wait to feel pain before seeing a doctor. Some of the most common symptoms are as follows:

Bladder changes
Trouble urinating
Pain when urinating
Blood in the urine
Bowel changes
Blood in the stools
Changes in bowel habits
Breast changes
Lump or firm feeling in your breast or under your arm
Nipple changes or discharge
Skin that is itchy, red, scaly, dimpled, or puckered
Cough or hoarseness that does not go away
Eating problems
Pain after eating (heartburn or indigestion that doesn’t go away)
Trouble swallowing
Belly pain
Nausea and vomiting
Appetite changes
Fatigue that is severe and lasts
Fever or night sweats for no known reason
Mouth changes
A white or red patch on the tongue or in your mouth
Bleeding, pain, or numbness in the lip or mouth
Neurological problems
Headaches, Seizures, Vision changes
Hearing changes
Drooping of the face
Skin changes
A flesh-colored lump that bleeds or turns scaly
A new mole or a change in an existing mole
A sore that does not heal
Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes)
Swelling or lumps anywhere such as in the neck, underarm, stomach, and groin
Weight gain or weight loss for no known reason

Causes

There are no clear reasons for cancer onset. Some of the reasons which are plausible as per researchers are as follows:

- Smoking
- Excessive alcohol consumption
- Exposure to chemicals and toxins
- Sedentary lifestyle.
- Obesity and overweight.
- Genetic factors
- Exposure to UV / IR rays.
- Exposure to excessive radiation.

More about Treatment

Normally, human cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. However in Cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues.These extra cells can divide without stopping and may form growths called tumors.
Many cancers form solid tumors, which are masses of tissue. Cancers of the blood, such as leukemias, generally do not form solid tumors. Cancerous tumors are classified as malignant and benign. Malignant cancers can spread into, or invade nearby tissues. Benign tumors do not spread into, or invade, nearby tissues. In the case of malignant cancer cells can break off and travel to distant places in the body through the blood or the lymph system and form new tumors far from the original tumor. This process is called metastasis.
Usually benign tumors, when removed, don’t grow back, whereas malignant tumors do. Unlike most benign tumors elsewhere in the body, benign brain tumors can be life threatening.

Causes:
Cancer is a genetic disease—that is, it is caused by changes to genes that control the way our cells function, especially how they grow and divide. Genetic changes that cause cancer can be inherited or acquired. Acquired cancer arise during a person’s lifetime as a result of errors that occur as cells divide or because of damage to DNA caused by certain environmental exposures. Cancer-causing environmental exposures include substances, such as the chemicals in tobacco smoke, and radiation, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun.

Types of Cancers:
There are a number of cancers occurring (approx 170 types) the more common ones are as follows:

Bladder Cancer
Breast Cancer
Colon and Rectal Cancer
Endometrial Cancer
Kidney Cancer
Leukemia
Liver Cancer
Lung Cancer
Melanoma
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Pancreatic Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Thyroid Cancer

Diagnosis:
Diagnosis of cancer can be usually divided into 3 types of tests:

- Lab test
- Imaging tests
- Biopsy tests

Lab tests are not conclusive tests, though they indicate the presence (or absence) of certain tumor markers.

Imaging tests are usually used to create pictures of areas inside the body and help the doctor to see if a tumor is present. Some of the common imaging techniques used are:
- CT scan
- MRI
- Nuclear scan
- Pet Scan
- Bone scan
- Ultrasound
- X-rays

Biopsy
In most cases the conclusive test for determining cancer is a biopsy. In this procedure the doctor removes a sample of tissue and sends to a pathologist. The pathologist examines the tissue under a microscope and performs other tests to conclude if the tissue is malignant.
Biopsy is done by using a needle (to draw tissue samples) or by endoscopy, where the doctor uses a light to examine areas inside the body, (like colonoscopy or bronchoscopy) or by surgery, where an area of the tissue is removed under local anesthesia or general anesthesia.

Treatment:
There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that you receive will depend on the type of cancer you have and how advanced it is. Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. But most people have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. When you need treatment for cancer, you have a lot to learn and think about. It is normal to feel overwhelmed and confused.

Surgery
When used to treat cancer, surgery is a procedure in which a surgeon removes cancer from your body. Learn the different ways that surgery is used against cancer and what you can expect before, during, and after surgery.

Radiation Therapy
Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Learn about the types of radiation, why side effects happen, which ones you might have, and more.

Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Learn how chemotherapy works against cancer, why it causes side effects, and how it is used with other cancer treatments.

Immunotherapy to Treat Cancer
Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. This page covers the types of immunotherapy, how it is used against cancer, and what you can expect during treatment.

Targeted Therapy
Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment that targets the changes in cancer cells that help them grow, divide, and spread. Learn how targeted therapy works against cancer and about common side effects that may occur.

Hormone Therapy
Hormone therapy is a treatment that slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Learn about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

Precision Medicine
Precision medicine helps doctors select treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the role precision medicine plays in cancer treatment, including how genetic changes in a person's cancer are identified and used to select treatments.

Side Effects of Cancer Treatment

Cancer treatments and cancer can cause side effects. Side effects are problems that occur when treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. It is a good idea to know about the various side effects to recognise and help reduce them:-
Anemia
Appetite Loss
Bleeding and Bruising (Thrombocytopenia)
Constipation
Delirium
Diarrhea
Edema (Swelling)
Fatigue
Fertility Issues in Boys and Men
Fertility Issues in Girls and Women
Flu-Like Symptoms
Hair Loss (Alopecia)
Infection and Neutropenia
Lymphedema
Memory or Concentration Problems
Mouth and Throat Problems
Nausea and Vomiting
Nerve Problems (Peripheral Neuropathy)
Organ-Related Inflammation and Immunotherapy
Pain
Sexual Health Issues in Men
Sexual Health Issues in Women
Skin and Nail Changes
Sleep Problems
Urinary and Bladder Problems

Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Complementary medicine is treatments that are used along with standard medical treatments but are not considered to be standard treatments. One example is using acupuncture to help lessen some side effects of cancer treatment.

Alternative medicine is treatments that are used instead of standard medical treatments. One example is using a special diet to treat cancer instead of anticancer drugs that are prescribed by an oncologist.

Integrative medicine is a total approach to medical care that combines standard medicine with the CAM practices that have been shown to be safe and effective. They treat the patient's mind, body, and spirit.

Risk factors:
Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer:-

- Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use (esp. Lung cancer, Oral cavity cancer, bladder cancer, Cervical cancer, Esophageal cancer etc)
- Infections - Like Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Hepatitis B & C, for cervix, vagina, anus, oropharynx, and liver cancer
- Radiation - UV radiation - for non-melanoma skin cancer, leukemia, thyroid cancer, breast cancer.
- Immunosuppressive Medicines After Organ Transplant as these medicines decrease the immune system’s ability to fight diseases.

Factors That May Affect the Risk of Cancer:
Diet
Alcohol
Lack of physical Activity
Obesity
Diabetes
Environmental Risk Factors

Cancer prevention:
Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. In addition to the physical problems and emotional distress caused by cancer, the high costs of care are also a burden to patients, their families, and to the public. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer is lowered. Hopefully, this will reduce the burden of cancer and lower the number of deaths caused by cancer.

Cancer is not a single disease but a group of related diseases. Many things in our genes, our lifestyle, and the environment around us may increase or decrease our risk of getting cancer.

Scientists are studying many different ways to help prevent cancer, including the following:
- Ways to avoid or control things known to cause cancer.
- Changes in diet and lifestyle.
- Finding precancerous conditions early. Precancerous conditions are conditions that may become cancer.
- Chemo-prevention (medicines to treat a precancerous condition or to keep cancer from starting).
- Risk-reducing surgery.

FAQ

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Top Doctors For Cancer Treatment

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    238

Dr. K. Satish Srinivas Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 15 years | Hospital: Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre (SRMC)
Dr. Asmita Jain Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 13 years | Hospital: Primus Super Speciality Hospital, Delhi
Dr. Abhay Kumar Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Narayana Hospital
Dr. Amit Rauthan Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 17 years | Hospital: Manipal Hospitals, Bengaluru
Dr. Archana Shetty Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 21 years | Hospital: Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital
Dr. Feroz Pasha Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 18 years | Hospital: Apollo Indraprastha
Dr. G. K. Jadhav Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 25 years | Hospital: Apollo Indraprastha
Dr. Rohit Nayyar Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Max Super Speciality Hospital, Saket
Dr. Sharan Choudhri Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 25 years | Hospital: Max Super Speciality Hospital, Saket
Dr. Nidha Iqbal Shapoo Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 5 years | Hospital: Thumbay Hospital, Dubai
Dr. Rajeev Kaushal Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 27 years | Hospital: Saudi German Hospital
Dr. Balaji Balasubramaniam Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 15 years | Hospital: NMC Royal AbuDhabi
Dr. Sai Babu Jonnada Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 16 years | Hospital: NMC Royal AbuDhabi
Dr. Mohanad Diab Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 15 years | Hospital: NMC Royal AbuDhabi
Dr. Sadir Alrawi Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 28 years | Hospital: NMC Royal AbuDhabi
Dr. Moujahed (Ed) Ashtar Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 29 years | Hospital: NMC Royal AbuDhabi
Dr. Khaled Kouteich Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 28 years | Hospital: Al Zahra Dubai
Dr. Sujay Susikar Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Fortis Malar Hospital, Chennai
Dr. Bellarmine Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 37 years | Hospital: Fortis Malar Hospital, Chennai
Dr. S Annalakshmi Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
Dr. Radheshyam Naik Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 25 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
Dr. Premita Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
Dr. Prabhu Nesargikar Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
Dr. Mahesh Bandemegal Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
Dr. Lohith Reddy Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
Dr. Krithika Murugan Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
Dr. Jagannath Dixit Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 16 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
Dr. Belliappa Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
Dr. Akshay Kudpaje Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: HCG Cancer Centre
Dr. Shabeena Rana Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 17 years | Hospital: Al Zahra Dubai
Dr. Anil Kumar Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 9 years | Hospital: Fortis Hospital, Bengaluru
Dr. Reetesh Ranjan Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: BLK Hospitals
Dr. S. Jayalakshmi Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Artemis Hospital, Delhi
Dr. Priya Tiwari Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Artemis Hospital, Delhi
Prof. Hale Başak Çağlar Cancer | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Anadolu Hospital
Prof. Dr. Bülent Karagöz Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Anadolu Hospital
Prof. N. Yalçın İlker Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Anadolu Hospital
Dr. Mehmet Doğu Canoğlu Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Anadolu Hospital
Dr. Harsh Dua Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 25 years | Hospital: Apollo Indraprastha
Dr. Manish Singhal Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 16 years | Hospital: Apollo Indraprastha
Dr. Abuchi Okaro Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 20 years | Hospital: Euracare Multi-Specialist Hospital
Dr. Syed Azim Razvi Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Apollo Indraprastha
Dr. S. Hukku Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 25 years | Hospital: BLK Hospitals
Dr. Surender Kumar Dabas Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 7 years | Hospital: BLK Hospitals
Dr. Amit Agarwal Cancer | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: BLK Hospitals

Top Hospitals For Cancer Treatment

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    238

Cytecare Hospitals At Cytecare, they understand and stress on the right way of fighting cancer. This gives rise to a mu
Columbia Asia Hospital, Bengaluru Columbia Asia is an international healthcare group operating a chain of modern hospitals across Indi
Gleaneagles Global Hospital, Mumbai Gleneagles Global Hospital, Mumbai offers end-to-end clinical, surgical and diagnostic services. The
Kerala Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Trivandrum KIMS HEALTHCARE GROUP is one of Asia’s leading multi-specialty hospital networks focussed on provi
Max Super Speciality Hospital, Saket Max Smart Super Speciality Hospital, Saket (a unit of Gujarmal Modi Hospital & Research Centre for M
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