Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST)
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST)
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor or GIST is actually a cluster of overgrown cells or tumors which occur mainly in the gastrointestinal tract. These tumors usually grow mainly from the specialized cells that are found in the gastrointestinal tract. It is also called as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) or also known as precursors to these cells. Adults between the age of 40 and 70 get GISTs. It rarely occurs in children as well as young adults. These tumors in the gastrointestinal tract can usually be cancerous (i.e. malignant) or at times it is noncancerous (i.e. benign). Gastrointestinal stromal tumors usually start in specialized nerve cells located mainly in the digestive system walls. These nerve cells in the digestive system are part of the autonomic nervous system. A small change in one of these cells' DNA, that control like digestive processes especially of movement of food mainly through the intestines can give rise to GIST.
The symptoms of GISTs or Gastrointestinal stromal tumor are as follows:
- Anemia that is caused by tumor (slow-bleeding)
- Abdominal pain
- A growth that you can feel when you touch your abdomen
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss
- Difficulty swallowing
Few of the causes of GISTs or Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor are as follows:
- Genetic changes in few genes are found to be involved in GIST formation
- Mutations in the KIT as well as PDGFRA genes are mainly associated with both familial as well as sporadic GISTs in individuals
- Mutations occurring in ICCs usually leads to cell growth thus causing GIST formation
More about Treatment
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Diagnosis and Treatment:
Chronic Gastrointestinal Tumor usually involves the following treatment procedures:
Prior to the Treatment:
- In order to diagnose, your doctor will review your medical history, which includes examining your abdomen
- Your doctor will conduct a physical exam as well as possibly order tests in order to diagnose the problem
- If signs as well as symptoms show that you have GIST, then further tests will be taken to locate it
- Your doctor will then determine its spreading likelihood or (metastasizing) especially to other organs
- CT scan as well as Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) scans will be taken to determine the esophagus inner lining of stomach and to know the precise tumor location respectively
- Your doctor will ask you to take an upper endoscopy in order to examine the esophagus inner lining as well as the small intestine first part
- Fine-needle aspiration therapy are done by your doctor by taking a small sample tissue from the tumor
- Lab tests are carried out on biopsies which can provide information mainly on the proteins that tumor cells make. When the tumor mitotic rate is high in a tumor, the situation can be more aggressive. In this case, greater is the likelihood other organs getting spreaded and affected
During the Treatment:
- Anesthesia is provided by your surgeon or doctor before the treatment commences
- Symptomatic GIST’s are removed through surgery unless and until it is not too large or in certain cases, it does not involve other organs
- GISTs can also be resected by invasive minimal surgery that involves where your doctor puts a viewing tube or laparoscopy by making an incision in your abdomen
Prognosis, Post-Treatment and Recovery:
- During the post-treatment stage, targeted drug treatments are given to block the abnormalities to make the cancer cells die.
- Tyrosine kinase which is a type of enzyme that can help stop cancer cells grow for GISTs are given
- Imatinib or Gleevec is prescribed by your doctor during the recovery stage in order to prevent GI stromal tumor relapse after surgery.
- Your doctor will advise you to carry on with your treatment as long as the drug you are taking is effective.
- Certain other drugs which can also target tyrosine kinase might also be recommended by your doctor, if in case GI stromal tumor does not actually respond to imatinib over time.
- Frequent follow ups by your doctor will be recommended by your doctor post surgery or post treatment
- Medications will be provided in order to stop the GI stromal tumor from recurring back again
GIST Tumor Survival Rate:
The cervical rate of GI stromal tumor for people is 83% (5 year survival rate). Whatsoever, it usually depends on many factors like different tumor biologic characteristics, the type of treatment, as well as the risk which will come back post treatment.
1. What is stroma? What does the stroma do?
Stroma is actually the supportive framework of a gland or an organ or any other structure. It is usually made of connective tissue. Stroma connects all other organs
2. What is the difference between stroma vs parenchyma?
The stroma is actually distinct from the parenchyma.The parenchyma of an organ usually consists of tissues that conduct a certain organ function which usually is made of bulk of the organ. Stroma, on the other hand, is actually everything else. It is the connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves as well as ducts.
3. What is a Gastrointestinal (GI) tract? And how long is it?
Gastrointestinal tract or GI is actually the tract that travels from the mouth until the anus. It mainly includes all digestive system organs in humans as well as other animals.GI tract is usually 30ft. long
4. What are the nerves in the walls that are present in the gastrointestinal tract referred to as?
ENS or Enteric Nervous System which is one of different divisions of ANS or autonomic nervous system is what is referred to.
5. What is the survival rate of a ruptured bowel?
Despite technological and medical improvements in treatments, the overall mortality rate is actually 30%
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