- Knee arthritis; which occurs when there is loss of cartilage in the knee.
- Osteoarthritis; which occurs when bone rides against bone, thereby causing the knee joint to be stiff and painful.
- Closing wedge osteotomy: For this high tibial osteotomy procedure, a piece of bone is removed from below the joint of the upper tibia. If arthritis has affected the medial knee compartment, a triangular bone wedge is taken from the outer region of the tibia (the bone beneath the knee). Once the bone segment has been removed, the two bone ends are fixed together with a metal plate and pins.
- Opening wedge osteotomy: For this high tibial osteotomy procedure, the tibia is sliced through on the inner side to open a wedge. This procedure involves adding a segment of the bone graft from the pelvic bone to hold the region open. A plate and pins are then inserted to bring stability. This procedure is usually carried out at the upper side of the tibia, right just below the knee joint.
• Angular deformity
• Heredity – Some people have an inherited defect in one of the genes responsible for making cartilage.
• Obesity – Obesity increases the risk for osteoarthritis of the knee, hip, and spine.
• Injury – Injuries contribute to the development of osteoarthritis.
• Joint overuse.
• Other diseases.
Are there any high tibial osteotomy complications?
Just like other forms of surgeries, there are a number of risks that associated with high tibial osteotomy. The following are possible high tibial osteotomy complications that may occur;
- Blood clots in the vein of the legs.
- Knee stiffness.
- Damage to the surrounding blood vessels and/or nerves.
- Failure of the cut bone to heal.
- Discomfort from the metal-ware and subsequent removal.
- Unexpected fractures.
- Swelling and numbness of the leg.
- Anaesthetic complications.
What are the alternatives to a high tibial osteotomy surgery?
There are a number of non-surgical options available as an alternate;
- Use of pain medication.
- Use of walking stick.
- Use of a brace around the knee.
What is high tibial osteotomy success rare?
Most patients who undergo a high tibial osteotomy surgery enjoy fully functioning knees for 5 to 10 years following the surgery.
About 70% reports satisfaction, while 75% are able to return to sports and/or work activities.
What are the benefits of high tibial osteotomy?
Some of the benefits derived from a high tibial osteotomy are;
- Some ligament around the knee function.
- Minimizes arthritis in other compartments of the knee.
- Adequate range of motion.