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Myelodysplastic Syndrome

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Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Myelodysplasia or Myelodysplastic syndrome, is a group of cells which stays in bone marrow in the immature form and never activates as healthy cells. Immature cells widely spread in the entire bone marrow and RBCs and WBCs don’t get enough area to grow.

Symptoms

In the initial stage to find symptoms is a bit challenging and tricky but later it can show :

  • Very fast heartbeat
  • Tiredness
  • Trouble during climbing stairs, cycling, brisk walking and in other exercises
  • Sinus infection
  • Pale body parts because of less RBC
  • Skin infections
  • Lung and bladder infection
  • Bleeding
  • Loss of appetite
  • Stuffy nose
  • Continuous fever
  • Chills
  • Nose bleeds
  • Mouth sores
  • Chest tightness or pain

Actual symptoms develop when conuts of Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets decrease. 

Causes

When there is some sort of defect in bone marrow or stem cells. Also, people who have anemia then chances of catching Myelodysplasia are very high.

  • Infection and bleeding through thrombocytopenia
  • Infection and bleeding due to leukopenia 
  • If cancer treatment is done  frequently such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy so as a side effect Myelodysplastic syndrome can occur.
  • If a person is inhaling hazardous chemicals, benzene exposure, pesticides, lead in an industrial area that also causes this disease. 
  • It can happen in chainsmokers.

More about Treatment

Myelodysplasia syndrome is likely to happen in people with the age 60 or above, this disease is not seen or very rarely seen  in children, infants, young adults, and teenagers. Also it is male targeted disease, not easily found in females. There are many stages of this, some are acute, then sub acute and extremely chronic.

RISK FACTORS OF MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES

  • People who stay involved with benzene and toluene can have a risk of this disease.
  • Anemia patients

COMPLICATIONS OF MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROME

  • Harms the nervous and immune system.
  • Posture and balance of body while performing certain activities becomes unstable suddenly.
  • Formation of WBC, RBC and platelets drastically reduces.

MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROME TREATMENT

Before stepping into the treatment procedure doctor observes some undeniable factors in a patient such as age of a person, apart from myelodysplasia how many other diseases the patient carries, if there is any bone marrow transplant donor then whether that person is capable to do so and  stage of myelodysplasia.

Treatments which doesn't hold the many risks are :

Iron Chelation - Helps to remove unwanted iron from the body and normalizes the mineral content in the body.

Blood Transfusion -  This maintains the blood counts and if someone has less RBC, WBC and platelets then it sort of increases until it gets normal.

Immunosuppressive - It stops the immune system to spread immature cells to bone marrow.

Growth factors - Some growth factors can replace the requirement of Blood transfusion such as Zarxio, Procrit and Neupogen.

MEDICATIONS FOR MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROME 

Medicines such as Decogen and Vidaza give a relief in symptoms of myelodysplasia and increase the count of healthy cells.

Revlimid stops the involvement of gene mutation.

MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROME DIAGNOSIS

As most of the symptoms stay hidden for a longer time doctors usually recommend blood tests and bone marrow biopsy.

Blood tests are done to check the appearance, shape and size of WBC, RBC and platelets. 

In bone marrow biopsy a small needle is added in the hip bone to thoroughly check bone marrow, surrounding blood and bones evenness.

 

FAQ

1. When to commence consultation  if a person has Myelodysplasia ?

First consultation should be done with a known or family doctor. The general physician will guide you about a hematologist.

2. Are there any restrictions which a Myelodysplastia’s patient should follow?

Indulge in a healthy and balanced diet, stay away from areas filled with benzene and toluene, quit smoking, don’t indulge in very intense exercises, basic exercises also works best.

3. What is a prognosis of Myelodysplastic syndrome ? 

If a person just has MDS and also in early stage treatments, diagnosis and specific medications can save their life and increase the survival rate by 20% but if a person carries MDS and AML (Acute myelogenous leukemia) then survival rate might decrease however that still depends on their symptoms. If you are in the first stage then you can live almost 5-6 years more if you are in the last stage then hardly 6-10 months.

4. How many types of Myelodysplastic syndrome are there ?

MDS with Ring sideroblast, MDS with more blasts, MDS with multilineage dysplasia, MDS with single lineage dysplasia.

5. What are the chances of MDS in a person who’s age is 45 ?

90% MDS is present in people who’s age is above 50 so below 50 have only 5-10% chances.

Top Doctors For Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treatment

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Dr. Nils H. Thoennissen, MD Medical Director
Dr. Divya Bansal Blood related – Hematology | Gender: Female | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Manipal Hospitals, Bengaluru
Dr. Ahmad Ali Basha Blood related – Hematology | Gender: Male | Experience: 25 years | Hospital: Saudi German Hospital

Top Hospitals For Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treatment

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