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Thyromegaly

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Thyromegaly

Thyromegaly

An overview of thyromegaly The thyroid gland is the gland responsible for producing the hormones that regulate body temperature, metabolism, heart rate, digestion, mode, respiration and enhance the growth and development of the body. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland leads to a lot of clinical complications within the human body. American Thyroid Association in recent […]

Symptoms

The most common symptom of a thyromegaly condition is an enlarged thyroid gland. 

Other common symptoms may include – 

  • Tightness in the neck and cough.
  • Difficulty in swallowing food and breathing. 
  • Voice hoarseness. 
  • Fever (if infection is present), headache, dizziness and general malaise
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Dry hair and skin, and brittle nails (due the degeneration of keratin cells)
  • Depression, fatigue, constipation, weakness, and stiff joints.
  • Abnormal weight loss or gain
  • Muscle weakness
  • Impaired growth in children

Causes

  • Iodine deficiency: The main cause of a thyromegaly condition is iodine deficiency. In the production of thyroid hormones, iodine plays a dynamic role. So when the body does not produce enough iodine, or a person does not consume enough iodine or consumes a diet high in hormone inhibiting foods, such as cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower, the thyroid enlarges in a bid to obtain more iodine. 
  • Graves’ disease: This is an autoimmune disease that occurs when the immune system wrongly attacks the thyroid gland. In response, the thyroid overstimulates and begins to release excess thyroxin hormones, which leads to hyperthyroidism, and in turn a thyromegaly condition.
  • Hashimoto's disease: A thyromegaly condition can occur from an underactive thyroid (that is, hypothyroidism). Hashimoto's disease is also an autoimmune disorder. That is, occurs when the immune system by mistake attacks the thyroid gland. This damages the thyroid gland and makes it unable to produce sufficient hormone. The low hormone level motivates the pituitary gland to produce more TSH to stimulate the thyroid, which in the end causes the thyroid gland to enlarge.
  • Multi-nodular goitre: In some thyromegaly condition, several solid or fluid-filled knobs known as nodules develop in both sides of the thyroid, thereby resulting in overall enlargement of the gland.
  • Solitary thyroid nodules: for some thyromegaly condition, a single nodule grows in one part of the thyroid gland. This is usually non-cancerous and never leads to cancer.
  • Inflammation: An inflammation of the thyroid known as thyroiditis may occur and cause pain and swelling of the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis may also cause the body to produce too much or too little thyroxin. It can be caused by an infection, an autoimmune disease (such as Hashimoto’s or Graves’ disease), medications (such as interferon and amiodarone), and radiation therapy

Inflammation can also lead to leakage of the thyroid hormone into the bloodstream and cause the thyroid gland to swell.

More about Treatment

An overview of thyromegaly

The thyroid gland is the gland responsible for producing the hormones that regulate body temperature, metabolism, heart rate, digestion, mode, respiration and enhance the growth and development of the body. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland leads to a lot of clinical complications within the human body.

American Thyroid Association in recent epidemiological studies said nearly 200 million people across the world have some form of thyroid disease. One of the major diseases of the thyroid gland is Thyromegaly, which manifests as an enlargement of the thyroid gland. This thyroid enlargement can also be a serious indicator of malignancy.

What is thyromegaly?

Thyromegaly is a medical condition characterised by an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland. It manifests as an evident swelling below Adam’s apple in both men and women. The thyromegaly condition also known as goitre is largely credited to the dysfunctions of the thyroid gland.

The major cause attributed to this dysfunction is insufficient iodine. Globally, one-third of the population suffers from a low intake of iodine. So, basically, when the thyroid gland is unable to produce enough hormone, in order to compensate it enlarges.  Although thyromegaly is usually painless, irrespective of how large it might be.

However, a large thyromegaly can cause a cough, and difficulty in swallowing and/or breathing. If left untreated or unchecked it can cause serious harm, as the thyroid gland can turn highly ineffective, stops making thyroid hormone or makes too much.

This leads to hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism Most cases studied so far, have indicated that women are more likely to develop thyromegaly than men, and heredity was a significant role in the diagnosed cases of enlarged thyroid gland. The treatment of this condition depends on the size of the thyromegaly, symptoms shown and the cause.

Diagnosis of thyromegaly. A simple physical examination of the neck may be enough to diagnose a thyromegaly condition. During the examination, a doctor feels the neck and asks the patient to swallow. If the thyroid gland is found to be enlarged, further analysis will be carried out to determine the underlying cause. To diagnose the underlying cause of a thyromegaly condition, the following may be requested

    • Thyroid hormone function tests: carried out to measure the amount of T3, T4 and TSH in the blood.
    • Ultrasound scan: to generate an image of the thyroid gland.
    • Thyroid Radioiodine scan: to generate an image of the thyroid on a computer screen, using a radioactive isotope injected into the vein on the inside of the elbow.
    • Thyroid fine needle biopsy: A fine needle is used to take a sample of tissue in the thyroid gland for laboratory analysis.

Thyromegaly treatment. Thyromegaly treatment is based on the exact condition of the thyroid gland. That is, the underlying cause of thyromegaly. Your doctor will choose the right thyromegaly treatment option for you after a thorough examination and underlying cause. Some of the thyromegaly treatment options are – iodine supplement, medications and surgery.

  Diagnosis of thyromegaly. A simple physical examination of the neck may be enough to diagnose a thyromegaly condition. During the examination, a doctor feels the neck and asks the patient to swallow. If the thyroid gland is found to be enlarged, further analysis will be carried out to determine the underlying cause. To diagnose the underlying cause of a thyromegaly condition, the following may be requested
    • Thyroid hormone function tests: carried out to measure the amount of T3, T4 and TSH in the blood.
    • Ultrasound scan: to generate an image of the thyroid gland.
    • Thyroid Radioiodine scan: to generate an image of the thyroid on a computer screen, using a radioactive isotope injected into the vein on the inside of the elbow.
    • Thyroid fine needle biopsy: A fine needle is used to take a sample of tissue in the thyroid gland for laboratory analysis.
  • Thyroid antibody tests.
Thyromegaly treatment. Thyromegaly treatment is based on the exact condition of the thyroid gland. That is, the underlying cause of the thyromegaly.  Your doctor will choose the right thyromegaly treatment option for you after thorough examination and underlying cause. Some of thyromegaly treatment options are – iodine supplement, medications and surgery.

FAQ

  • What is the relationship between a thyromegaly condition and cancer?

Usually nodules on the thyroid gland are non-cancerous, but in very rare cases, it can be cancerous. According to studies that have been carried out, thyroid cancer occurs in about 8% thyroid nodules in men and 4% thyroid nodules in women.

However, it is not quite understood why and how nodules increase the risk for cancer. 

  • What’s the outlook of a thyromegaly?

The outlook for thyromegaly conditions depends on the underlying cause and the size of the swelling. 

  • What are the risk factors of a thyromegaly?
    1. Consumption of insufficient dietary iodine
    2. Female sex hormone: Women are more prone to thyroid disorders. 
    3. Age: A thyroid gland disorder is more common with those above the age of 40.
    4. Medical history: A personal or family history of autoimmune disease increases put a person at risk.
    5. Radiation exposure: An exposure to radiation around the neck or chest area increases the risk of thyroid disorders.
  • Are there any complications of thyromegaly?

A thyromegaly condition of small size that doesn't cause physical or cosmetic problems aren't of concern. But large size thyromegaly condition can make it quite hard to breathe or swallow. cough and hoarseness may also occur.

Other possible complications may be fatigue, weight gain, unintended weight loss, irritability and trouble sleeping.

  • Is thyromegaly hereditary?

Yes. A family history of thyroid gland problems may put one at risk of having thyromegaly or any other thyroid relating disorders. 

  • How can I prevent a thyroid condition?
  1. Follow a strict thyroid-healthy diet. 
  2. Quit smoking and drinking. 
  3. Be wary of fluoride contamination in water. 
  4. Crash diets should be strictly no-no. 
  5. Beware of environmental toxins. 
  6. Reduce exposure to harmful radiations, such as X-rays.
  • Does pregnancy puts me at risk of thyromegaly?

The human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) hormone produced during pregnancy may cause the thyroid gland to slightly enlarge.

Top Doctors For Thyromegaly Treatment

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Dr. J. Dhivyalakshmi Endocrinology | Gender: Female | Experience: 7 years | Hospital: Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre (SRMC)
Dr. Archana Juneja Endocrinology | Gender: Female | Experience: 15 years | Hospital: Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital
Dr. Dheeraj Kapoor Endocrinology | Gender: Male | Experience: 15 years | Hospital: Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital
Dr. C. M. Batra Endocrinology | Gender: Male | Experience: 30 years | Hospital: Apollo Indraprastha
Dr. Elif Karacanoğlu Endocrinology | Gender: Female | Experience: 15 years | Hospital: Hisar Intercontinental
Dr. Khalid Alghofaili Endocrinology | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Saudi German Hospital
Dr. Sudhanshu Dev Singh Endocrinology | Gender: Male | Experience: 10 years | Hospital: Saudi German Hospital
Dr. Ambanna Gowda Endocrinology | Gender: Male | Experience: 9 years | Hospital: Fortis Hospital, Bengaluru
Dr. Yavuz Selim Demir Endocrinology | Gender: Male | Experience: 26 years | Hospital: Medicana International Hospital, Istanbul
Dr. Süleyman Ipekçi Endocrinology | Gender: Male | Experience: 18 years | Hospital: Hisar Intercontinental

Top Hospitals For Thyromegaly Treatment

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Columbia Asia Hospital, Bengaluru Columbia Asia is an international healthcare group operating a chain of modern hospitals across Indi
Gleaneagles Global Hospital, Mumbai Gleneagles Global Hospital, Mumbai offers end-to-end clinical, surgical and diagnostic services. The
Peerless Hospital, Kolkata 400 bed Multi-Specialty Peerless Hospital & B.K.Roy Research Centre is build around the core princip
Ramesh Hospital, Vijayawada Ramesh Hospital’s Main Centre flagship unit, located in the heart of Vijayawada, has been offering
Seven Hills Hospital, Mumbai SevenHills Group has over two decades of experience in the healthcare sector, and is known for provi
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